PRINCE2(Projects IN Controlled Environments 2)是一種結構化的專案管理方法和認證計畫,是一種常用的專案管理方法論(project management methodology),特別適用於IT項目管理。PRINCE2強調將專案分割成可管理可控制的階段,它提供了一套結構化的方法和指導,用於規劃、執行和監控專案。它在許多國家廣泛採用,包括英國、西歐國家和澳大利亞。(See: PRINCE2 - Wikipedia)


  • PRINCE2是一種高度認可的專案管理方法,有數百萬的PRINCE2從業者遍布全球。PRINCE2的方法也被項目管理學會(PMI)認可為與項目管理知識體系(PMBOK®)和項目管理專業人員(PMP®)認證相容的方法。
  • PRINCE2是一種適合初學者的方法,如果你的團隊從未使用過任何類型的專案管理方法,PRINCE2是一個很好的起點。它提供了一個清晰的流程和角色分配,以及一些核心的專案管理原則,如定義你的專案範圍和預算。
  • PRINCE2是一種靈活的方法,它可以適應不同的專案類型、規模和複雜度。你可以根據你的專案的特定需求和風險,調整PRINCE2的流程和主題。


  1. 核心思想:
  2. 每個階段都有明確的目標和交付物
  3. 專案劃分為一系列的控制點
  4. 強調以產品為中心
  5. 強調風險管理
  6. 它是Project Management Methodology:不是SDLC methodology
  7. 可應用不同的SDLC methodology, 如 Scrum, Kanban...etc.


See: 使用結構化專案管理確保專案成功交付 - SAP 論壇 (

  • 結構化專案管理意味著按照定義的步驟,以合乎邏輯、有組織的方式管理專案。
  • 結構化的專案管理方法是對這種合乎邏輯的、有組織的方法的書面描述


  • 七個原則:PRINCE2基於七個原則,包括:
    1. 持續業務正當性
    2. 學習經驗
    3. 定義角色與責任
    4. 管理階段化
    5. 管理例外
    6. 專注於產品
    7. 定制方法論
  • 組織角色:PRINCE2明確定義了專案經理、專案委員會、用戶和供應商等角色的責任和職責。
  • 產品導向:PRINCE2強調以產品為中心的方法,確保每個專案產品都有明確的定義、交付和驗收標準。
  • 階段化管理:PRINCE2將專案劃分為一系列可管理的階段,每個階段都有明確的目標和交付物。
  • 控制點:PRINCE2將專案劃分為一系列的控制點,用於評估專案的進展和可行性。
  • 風險管理:PRINCE2強調風險管理,包括識別、評估和應對風險的方法。


PRINCE2 project roles

One of the major benefits of using the PRINCE2 methodology is clarity. Some project management methodologies have looser guidelines, but each team member using PRINCE2 has a clear and designated role. These roles have their own specific set of expectations and responsibilities. Here are some key roles you will see in a PRINCE2 project.

  • Project manager(專案經理): The main individual responsible for project planning, executing the project, and moving the project along. 
  • Team manager: If your team is very large, there may be a team manager to assist the project manager. A team manager helps supervise the production of items and also manages the time and workload of each team member.
  • Customer(用戶): The customer is the person who receives the final project deliverable. This can be an external customer, contractor, or internal team. For example, your IT team may be working to create a better onboarding process. The end customers in this case are hiring managers and new hires.
  • Team members: These are the individuals who are responsible for creating the final deliverable. Because PRINCE2 is such a process-driven methodology, assigning specific roles for each team member is important. How you delegate tasks is up to the project manager or team manager.
  • Project board(專案委員會): A group of people who make high-level decisions for your project. Typically, the project board is made up of business executives, and in some cases, end customers.

6 key aspects of a PRINCE2 project

Every PRINCE2 project has these six characteristics, which the project manager tracks as the project progresses. Some of them link directly to key PRINCE2 principles (which we explain in the next section), while others are just important information for your team to know as they progress through the project. Here are six aspects that you'll find in every PRINCE2 project.

  1. Project scope: This clearly outlines what goals, deadlines, and project deliverables your project is working towards.
  2. Costs: This is how much money your project will cost. The goal is to calculate this as close as you can to prevent going over your project budget
  3. Timescales: This is the amount of time your project will take to complete. PRINCE2 projects typically have a set deadline created by the project board. Timescales help team members by giving them an estimated timeline to complete each task. 
  4. Risk: There’s inherent risk with every project because we can’t control everything. Part of PRINCE2 includes establishing a risk management process to proactively identify what risks your team may encounter and mitigate any issues.
  5. Quality: In PRINCE2, it's necessary to create a quality register, or something that clearly defines the standards of production for all deliverables. This ensures that the final deliverable meets your team’s highest standards and satisfies customer expectations.
  6. Benefits: PRINCE2 requires that every project has a clear business justification. This is similar to a project charter, but the requirements all depend on what your project board wants to see before approving the project.

7 principles of a PRINCE2 project

PRINCE2 is based on seven principles (why, or guidelines to follow) and these cannot be tailored. The PRINCE2 principles can be described as a mindset that keeps the project aligned with the PRINCE2 methodology. If a project does not adhere to these principles, it is not being managed using PRINCE2.

  1. Continued Business Justification (持續業務正當性): The business case is the most important document, and is updated at every stage of the project to ensure that the project is still viable. Early termination can occur if this ceases to be the case.
  2. Learn From Experience(學習經驗): Each project maintains a lessons log and projects should continually refer to their own and to previous and concurrent projects' lesson logs to avoid reinventing wheels. Unless lessons provoke change, they are only lessons identified (not learned).
  3. Defined Roles and Responsibilities(定義角色與責任): Roles are separated from individuals, who may take on multiple roles or share a role. Roles in PRINCE2 are structured in four levels (corporate or programme management, project board, project manager level and team level). Project Management Team contains the last three, where all primary stakeholders (business, user, supplier) need to be presented.
  4. Manage by Stages(管理階段化): The project is planned and controlled on a stage by stage basis. Moving between stages includes updating the business case, risks, overall plan, and detailed next-stage plan in the light of new evidence.
  5. Manage by Exception(管理例外): A PRINCE2 project has defined tolerances (6 aspects above) for each project objective, to establish limits of delegated authority. If a management level forecasts that these tolerances are exceeded (e.g. time of a management stage will be longer than the estimated time in the current management stage). It is escalated to the next management level for a decision how to proceed.
  6. Focus on Products(專注於產品): A PRINCE2 project focuses on the definition and delivery of the products, in particular their quality requirements.
  7. Tailor to Suit Project Environment(定制方法論?): PRINCE2 is tailored to suit the project environment, size, complexity, importance, time capability and risk. Tailoring is the first activity in the process Initiating A Project and reviewed for each stage.

The 7 themes of a PRINCE2 project

(the sub-list is the Management products)

  • Business case
    • Business case
    • Benefits management approach
  • Organisation
    • Communication management approach
    • Project management team role descriptions
  • Quality
    • Quality register
    • Quality management approach
  • Plans
    • Project product description
    • Product description(s)
    • Project plan, stage plan(s), team plan(s), exception plan(s)
  • Risk
    • Risk register
    • Risk management approach
  • Change
    • Issue register
    • Issue report(s)
    • Change control approach
    • Configuration item record(s)
    • Product status account(s)
  • Progress
    • Baselines for progress control: project, stage, team, exception plans, project initiation documentation (PID), project brief,
    • Records: issue register, product status account, quality register, risk register, configuration item records
    • Reports: checkpoint reports, highlight reports, end stage reports, end project report, lessons reports

The 7 phases/processes of a PRINCE2 project

In addition to the seven principles of PRINCE2, there are also seven phases/process (how, or roadmap start to finish) that guide your team from project initiation to project closure

  • Starting up a project: The project team submits a project plan using a project mandate, which is a rough outline of what the project entails. This provides a general idea of the project and clearly defines the business case. Once approved (often by the project board) the project team creates a more detailed project brief.
  • Directing: The project board reviews the project briefs and decides what’s required for the team to move forward. This could mean altering some aspects of the project brief to accommodate for resources or time.
  • Initiating a project: The project board chooses a project manager to lead and create an even more detailed project plan. This includes the baselines for time, cost, quality, scope, risk, and benefits. The project can officially begin once the project board fully approves the project plan the manager creates. 
  • Controlling: During this phase, the project manager breaks down parts of the project to make them more manageable. They then delegate these smaller portions to individual team members to work on and complete.
  • Managing product delivery: The project manager ensures the project is progressing smoothly and that deliverables meet the quality set by the quality register. The project board then reviews the deliverables and decides whether to approve the work, or request any changes or additional work for the project.
  • Managing stage boundaries: At the end of each stage, the project board holds a review to decide if the project should continue moving forward, or if the team should abandon the project. 
  • Closing: The project manager completes any final documentation, outcomes, and reporting before completely ending the lifecycle of this project.


(注1:以下是PRINCE2 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書 (的資料)

(注2:From The 7 Processes of PRINCE2 [2023 Guide] (, it is 7 processes, Not 8?):


項目準備(SU)- Starting up a Project




  • PL1計劃設計
  • PL2產品定義和分析
  • PL3活動及其依賴關係確定
  • PL4估算
  • PL5進度計劃制定
  • PL6風險分析
  • PL7完成計劃編制



  • IP1制定質量計劃
  • IP2制定項目計劃
  • IP3改進商業論證和風險
  • IP4設定項目控制
  • IP5制定項目文件
  • IP6整理項目啟動文件



  • DP1啟動授權
  • DP2項目授權
  • DP3階段或例外計劃授權
  • DP4特別指導
  • DP5確認項目收尾



  • CS1工作包授權
  • CS2進展評估
  • CS3捕捉項目問題
  • CS4檢查項目問題
  • CS5階段狀況評估
  • CS6要點報告
  • CS7採取糾正性行動
  • CS8項目問題逐級匯報
  • CS9已完成的工作包驗收



  • MP1工作包驗收
  • MP2執行工作包
  • MP3交付工作包



  • SB1制定階段計劃
  • SB2更新項目計劃
  • SB3更新項目的商業論證
  • SB4更新風險記錄單
  • SB5階段竣工報告
  • SB6制定例外計劃



  • CP1解散項目
  • CP2確定後續活動
  • CP3項目評價評審